PROMPT: Define “modern medicine.” Utilize the examples provided by the course to support the definition. You may want to use a comparative approach, comparing the Western definition of modern medicine to the Chinese definition of modern medicine. Make sure to use examples to support these definitions, specifically in the field of Alternative Medicine. For example, how did the practices in Western alternative medicine support their definition/outlook of modern medicine? Likewise, what Chinese practices in alternative medicine reinforced their definition of modern medicine? ONE SOURCE TO USE: https://www.pbs.org/video/university-place-strange-origins-modern-medicine/ FORMAT – Organization and format of the research paper: 1. Title (main and subtitle) 2. Introduction (roadmap of the paper): topic/scope, research question, and thesis statement 3. Main text: arguments and evidences; minding the relevance between each paragraph, in relation with the whole argument; transitional terms; one idea in one paragraph 4. Trend of Scholarship: in order to emphasize the significance of the paper. You must identify what trend of scholarship your sources are. There are three possible trends: FIRST TREND – Post WWII: Diffusionist View – George Basalla “The Spread of Western Science” – Three stage model 1. Scientific exploration 2. colonial dependence 3. independent establishment of the non-European societies – Characteristic of this scholarship – Nature of knowledge: based on mathematical rationality and reasoning, emerged out of scientific revolution – Modes of knowledge: produced in laboratories, centered in Western Europe – Transmission of knowledge: centered in Western Europe and transmitted globally SECOND TREND – Since the 1970s: Foucaudian discourse discourse of power – Modern science as a hegemonic “master narrative” of Western power – Scientific activities as the extension of the imperial structure – increasing visibility for better colonial control – Characteristic of this scholarship – nature of knowledge – modes of knowledge production – transmission of knowledge THIRD TREND – Since the 1990s: Reciprocal and circulatory constitution of scientific knowledge and practices – Recognizing the asymmetrical relationship with colonial power structure – reciprocity and circulation, as opposed to imposition – local factors – Characteristics of this scholarship – nature of knowledge – modes of knowledge production – transmission of knowledge 5. Conclusion 6. Work-cited About the format of footnoting and citation: 1. The citation of this class is Chicago Author-Date Citation System (not Notes and Bibliography System) (http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html). 2. The footnotes are not to cite the sources but to explain or add information that is better to separate from the main text. COURSE DESCRIPTION This course aims to explore modern medical knowledge and practices since the nineteenth century in both comparative and transnational approaches. We look at the cultural, intellectual, and social contexts that shaped modern medicine through history and across boundaries of geographical spaces, social groups, and disciplines. We examine selected topics, including anatomy, pathology, epidemics, Germ Theory, public health, clinical sciences, and psychiatry, as well as colonial and alternative medicine.