Essay questions answers should be succinct, fully address each part of the question, and demonstrate your knowledge and understanding in a concise but complete answer. Most essay questions require answers that are a couple of paragraphs (not a couple of sentences) that directly speak to each part of the question. Make sure you include enough concrete details to support each answer. Remember always use proper citation when quoting other sources! This means that ANY borrowed material (even a short phrase) is being placed in quotation marks with the source (URL, author/date/page #) immediately following the end of the passage. References must be within years 2014-2019. Changing a few words in a passage does NOT constitute putting it in your own words and proper citation is still required. Borrowed material should NOT dominate a student’s work, but should only be used sparingly to support your own thoughts, ideas, and examples. Heavy usage of borrowed material (even if properly cited) can jeopardize the points for that question. 1. Given the deliberate distortion and misuse of history in 20th and 21st century secular and religious ideology and propaganda, formulate a set of principles to govern historical research and the teaching of history to minimize the risk of ideological distortion and political misuse of history. 2. Given a present-day national or international situation with apparent negative consequences for the future, apply the tools and resources of history to assessing the probable short- and long-term outcomes of the situation and to proposing rational solutions. 3. Given the dominance of Western technology and economic institutions in global economic and cultural life, assess the challenges of technological and economic globalization to the cultural values and social patterns of a traditional society, e.g., Japan, Saudi Arabia, or India. 4. Given the concept of a “revolution of rising expectations,” analyze a failed 20th century constitutional system, e.g., Nationalist China in 1911-1949 or the USSR in 1986-1991, and the continuing challenge rising expectations present to contemporary regimes, e.g., the People’s Republic of China or Egypt. 5. Given the central role of charismatic leaders in authoritarian movements of the contemporary period, analyze the conditions under which such leaders are most able to mobilize the masses in their respective states. 6. Given the concept of sovereign power and the continuing appeal of nationalism, evaluate the challenges to developing effective collective security arrangements, e.g., the League of Nations and the United Nations. 7. Given the background and nature of the September 11, 2001, attacks, analyze the domestic and international challenges posed to exceptionally strong and technologically advanced states by international terrorist movements and sustained low-intensity conflict. 8. Given the generally enlarged role of modern governments in citizens’ lives, analyze the factors that have contributed to the increase in governmental authority over economic and social activities during the contemporary period. 9. Given the global political, economic, and cultural dominance of the U.S. after World War II to the present, characterize the position of the U.S. in terms of both positive and negative impacts on the world’s developing nations. 10. Given the critical role of mass protest movements and political violence in effecting change during the contemporary period, compare and contrast the goals, methods, and effectiveness of violent and non-violent movements for social, economic, and political change. 11. Given repeated cases of genocide in the 20th century, e.g., the Nazi holocaust, Cambodia under Pol Pot, “ethnic cleansing” in Bosnia, Rwanda, and others, analyze the roots of such behavior and explain how “civilized” peoples can become involved in institutionalized mass genocidal murder.